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OC Circular 1870

This is a copy of The Oneida Community Circular of March, 1870. This is excellent for information about the Community as it was written by members of the Community.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE ONEIDA AND WALLINGFORD COMMUNITIES

VOL. VII ONEIDA COMMUNITY, MARCH 21,1870. No. 1.

POST OFFICE ADDRESS:
THE CIRCULAR, ONEIDA, NEW YORK.

TERMS:

The CIRCULAR is sent to all applicants, whether they pay or not. It costs and is worth at least one dollar per volume. Those who want it and ought to have it, are divisible into three classes, viz. 1. Those who cannot afford to pay one dollar; 2. Those who can afford to pay only one dollar, and 3. Those who can afford to pay more than one dollar. The first ought to have it free; the second ought to pay the cost of it; and the third ought to pay enough more than it costs to make up the
deficiencies of the first. This is the law of Communism. We have no means of enforcing it and do not wish to do so, except by stating it and leaving it to the good sense of those concerned. We take the risk of offering the CIRCULAR to all without price.

Free subscriptions received only from persons making application for themselves, not by request of one friend for another.

All subscriptions must be renewed at the end of each volume, or they will be stricken from the list; cases of prepayment beyond the end of a volume excepted.

THE PRESENT PAPER

We give up the CIRCULAR this week to general information about the Community, for the benefit of strangers. Our regular subscribers, we trust, will find it tolerably
entertaining, though much of it is old news to them. We print a large extra edition, and shall be able to fill orders for any quantity at fifty cents per dozen or five cents per-copy.

INDEX OF ARTICLES

The O.C. and its Branches…..
The Short Dress……………….
List of Publications………….
Money Matters………………..
Strangers’ Guide to O.C…….
Admissions……………………
Foundation Walls……………
Community Journal…………..
Religious Foundations………
Correspondence………………
Early History of O. C……….
Center of the Empire State……
Free Love……………………
Short Questions and Answers..
Domestic Arrangements…….
The Trappers Guide………….
Benefits of Communism…….
O. C. Steel Trap………………
Means of Government………
O. C. Machine Twist…………
Vital Statistics………………
W. P. Foundry………………..
The O. C. School……………
Mount Tom Printing Office….
Stripiculture…………………
American Socialisms…………

ONEIDA COMMUNITY AND BRANCHES.

THE ONEIDA COMMUNITY

Is an association living in Lenox, Madison Co., N. Y., four miles south of Oneida and a few rods from the depot of the Midland Railroad. Number of members, 200. Land, 664 acres. Business, Manufacture of Hardware and Silk goods, Printing the CIRCULAR, Horticulture etc. Theology, Perfectionism, Sociology, Bible Communism.

WILLOW PLACE COMMUNITY

Branch of O. C. on a detached portion of its domain, about one and one-fourth miles north of O. C. Number of members, 35, Business, Manufactures.

WALLINGFORD COMMUNITY

Branch of O. C., at Wallingford, Conn., one mile west of the depot of the Hartford and New Haven Railroad. Number of members, 40. Land, 228 acres.
Business, Publishing, Job Printing, Manufactures, and Horticulture.

LIST OF PUBLICATONS

The following are constantly for sale at the Office of the CIRCULAR.

1. Current numbers of the CIRCULAR; price, 5 cts.

2. Back volumes of the CIRCULAR; price, $1.50.

3. History or American Socialisms, an octavo volume of 678 pages; price $4.00 For a more extended notice of this work see the last page.

4. A pamphlet on Salvation from Sin; price, .85 cts.

5. A tract on Male Continence; price, 5 cents

6. The Trappers Guide; an illustrated octavo of 216 pages; price, $1.50. See advertisement on last page.

STRANGER’S GUIDE TO O.C.

VISITORS on arriving at Oneida by New York Central Railroad, may proceed to the Community (distant about four miles) either on foot, or by carriage hired at the livery, or by the cars of the Midland Railroad. The pedestrian follows for most of the distance the straight path of the railway track. The carriage route is through the main street of Oneida, to Oneida Castle, a village of many Indian reminiscences, and thence up the valley of Oneida Creek, a mile and a half through a well-cultivated district to the Community domain. Time, three quarters of an hour. By the Midland cars, which make two trips a day, a traveler is set down in about seven minutes at, the 0. C. station, within a stone’s throw of the Community dwellings. Fare, fifteen cents. Visitors from the north or south have no change to make, as the Community station is on the new route from Oswego to New York (nearly completed), and is a stopping place of all the trains.

THE APPROACH.

The approach by railroad gives some pleasing views of the Community dwellings, particularly from the south, where at the distance of an eighth of a mile the track is over high trestlework. The route which for ten miles descends along the hillsides bordering the Oneida valley, here opens into the basin of Oneida Lake, which as a broad plain extends for many miles to the north, east, and west. The Community is situated just at the mouth of the valley and at the beginning of the plain.

The railroad passes for a mile diagonally through the Community domain, in the rear of the dwellings. The approach from the station being also in the rear, is through a part of the grounds which has been heretofore the least embellished. Paths, however, have been recently laid out and shade trees planted, which will soon render this an agreeable part of the Community surroundings.

RECEPTION-ROOM.

A walk of three minutes from the station, brings the visitor to a rear entrance of the mansion, opening into a small summer-court. Passing through it he enters a hall on the right which conducts to a reception-room, where he will usually find a gentleman or lady attendant who will answer his inquiries and give him directions for making the tour of the place. If they are absent, a word addressed to any person on the premises will bring the required attention. No pay is taken from those who merely wish to see the institution, but every facility is freely accorded to them.
Directly opposite this reception-room is the visitors’ dining-room, where refreshments are served. Persons wishing for dinner should procure their tickets as soon after arrival as convenient, to give the kitchen department suitable time for preparation.
Those who desire to see the public rooms will now be furnished with a guide, or with directions by which they may go alone. Some may be curious to commence at the foundation and visit.

THE BASEMENTS.
A stairway in the vestibule by which we entered, conducts to them. The visitor on descending finds himself fronted by numerous passages, flanked by stout foundation walls, leading to the store-rooms, the fruit-cellars, etc. The length of these basement and partition walls is over one-third of a mile. Most of the apartments and passages formed by them are kept at a summer temperature by steam pipes which pass through them, and hence are well adapted to housing exotic plants during the winter months. In the store rooms are long bins of preserved fruits, and vegetables. Here are a1so bathrooms, and play-rooms for the children in stormy weather. The most interesting part of this substructure is the apartment occupied by the steam-heating apparatus. Here is a new Phleger’s steam generator of thirty horse-power, which is, materially speaking, the heart of the institution. From it pipes are carried to all the principal rooms of this and the adjoining building, for heating and other purposes. It cooks the food in the kitchen, heats water for all purposes, and drives a steam-engine for printing and manufacturing. A mile and a half of iron pipe is used for these several purposes. A single man only is required to attend the steam-generator. Yet its genial influence is almost omnipresent, enabling the Community to dispense wholly with stoves in the main building, and furnishing power wherever it is needed in adjoining building, for heating and other purposes. It cooks the food in the kitchen, heats water for all purposes, and drives a steam-engine for printing and manufacturing. A mile and a half of iron pipe is used for these several purposes. A single man only is required to attend the steam-generator. Yet its genial influence is almost omnipresent, enabling the Community to dispense wholly with stoves in the main building, and furnishing power wherever it is needed.

THE MAIN PILE.

Returning to the vestibule on the ground floor by which we entered, we may now pass out through an eastern door to the lawn in front of the main building. The latter is seen to be of brick, with stone trimmings, and to consist of a center and two wings with a tower at either end. It is 188 feet long by 70 broad, and has extensions reaching 100 feet in the rear. The southern wing has been recently built, and with its mansard roof gives three habitable stories. The towers are four stories in height.

PARLOR AND LIBRARY.

The principal entrance, through the portico of the central building, leading to various public rooms. On the right, as we enter, is a parlor; on the left is a cloak-room and office with toilet conveniences for gentlemen. The parlor contains a stereoscope with views, a few engravings and a register wherein visitors commonly write their names. Further on, the entrance hall is crossed by another, leading to the wings on either hand. Next we come to the library on the left of the main staircase. This is a cozy room for the student, containing a collection of 3300 volumes. It is always open for the use of the Community and its guests. The reading-tables are supplied with files of many of the leading newspapers and periodicals of the day.

MUSEUM.

Ascending the staircase we enter a vestibule which contains a dozen interesting pictures, and the nucleus of a museum. Among the curiosities are a few animal remains, including the well-preserved tooth of a mastodon, some stalactites, old books, relics from Pompeii and Egypt, medals, Indian weapons, etc. A case of birds prepared by a member of the Community may be examined by persons interested in taxidermy.

THE MEETING HALL.

From the vestibule, doors open into the Hall or Chapel, a large room 21 feet high and frescoed. A stage and curtain on the front give conveniences for concerts, lectures and dramatic entertainments. A piano and harmonium, always present, invite to musical practice by the Community members or by visitors. During the summer, music will generally be given here at a certain hour each afternoon, at which visitors may be present. The main use of the Hall is for the social meetings of the Community, which are held in it for an hour every evening. Here, by converse on all topics of interest, the members cultivate the spirit of brotherhood which binds them together.

THE WINGS.

The parts of the building we have now seen comprise all the public rooms which are ordinarily open to visitors. The north wing of the building contains the living apartments of the family, and the south wing is occupied by the children, their attendants and others. The quiet of the occupants requires of course, that these portions should be closed from intrusion. To visit them, persons should first obtain permission from an attendant.

THE TOWER.

To gain a birds-eye view of the Community grounds and the surrounding country, the visitor may now pass out of the front entrance and ascend the tower. On reaching the top by a winding staircase, a landscape of uncommon beauty lies spread before him. At his feet the lawn with its neatly trimmed paths, the flower gardens with their brilliant colors, and the rustic seats and arbors, half concealed in shaded nooks, entice the eye with their quiet loveliness. Beyond are the orchards and vineyards, then the emerald meadows and winding stream, and in the distance, the gently rounded hills which bound the sides of the valley. The Community home farm extends for half a mile in most directions from this spot, and towards the north-east its breadth is over a mile. Six hundred and sixty four acres is the whole of the Community domain.

ORCHARDS AND VINEYARDS.

If the visitor’s curiosity is not satisfied by this general survey he may walk through grounds and view more nearly the features of the place. The orchards and vineyards lie mainly towards the west and north. The fruit products from them in 1869 were:
Apples ………………………… 400 bbls
Pears ………………………….117 bbls
Grapes ………………………… 5000 lbs
Formerly, large quantities of the smaller fruits were here produced and shipped to the various markets of the country. 0. C. strawberries were well-known from Portland to New York. The “ strawberry short-cake” here served, gave to thousands of visitors their first idea of the capabilities of that delicate compound. A large amount of fruit as also preserved for housekeepers in St. Paul, Chicago, Buffalo and New York. But the attempt to feed the multitudes abroad on this fare tasked too severely the strength of the Community, and they have recently given up the commerce in small fruits. Berry culture is now nearly restricted to the wants of the family and the supply required for visitors.

KITCHEN.

The culinary and dining apartments of the Community are in the Tontine, a large brick building standing a few rods in the rear of the main dwelling. Ordinarily it is reached by passing across the intervening court; but in bad weather persons may enter it through an arched passage leading from the boiler-room without outdoor exposure. One half of the basement is occupied by the family kitchen. Much of the cooking is here done by a steam range, and many labor-saving appliances are in use, such as a dish-washing apparatus, mop-wringers, vegetable-washing machines, etc., in all of which, machinery is made to work in the most effective way for lightening woman’s labor. Here also is the bakery, where three or four barrels of flour are weekly made into bread. All the heavier parts of kitchen-work are performed by men. Directly above the kitchen is the Community dining-room, arranged with twelve tables and offering seats to one hundred and twenty-five persons. It communicates with the kitchen by a dumb-waiter.

The building we are in includes, besides the kitchen and dining-room, certain mechanical industries, as we perceive by the hum of business issuing from some of its rooms. Opposite the kitchen in the basement, is the DYE-ROOM.

Here all the silk manufactured by the Community receives its many-colored hues, matching almost every tint in nature. This department is under the general supervision of an educated chemist, the practical details being managed by experts of both sexes.

In another part of the basement is an engine, driven by steam from the boiler in the large mansion, and used for driving the machinery of the
SPOOLING-ROOM.

This is on the first floor of the building. Here the finished silk which comes from the factory and dye-room in skeins, is first transferred by a winding machine to “bobbins,” and then, by a dozen hands, mostly of young women seated, at spooling machines, is deftly wound on spools, ready for market. Observe the brilliant gloss that the silk takes under their manipulation. The spools are packed ready for shipment in another room. Here you may see in Kelly’s Patent Case, the fine prismatic display from which ladies select their colored sewing-silks in many of the leading stores of the country.

PRINTING-OFFICE.

Two rooms in the next story are occupied by the printing-office. Here the CIRCULAR, the weekly organ of the Community is printed, folded and mailed. The type-setting is done mostly by young women.

LAUNDRY.

Seventy rods from the mansion in a southern direction, is the laundry. This is fitted up with a steam-boiler, washing and wringing machines, mangle, dry-room, and many conveniences by which the weekly washing, amounting in summer to 4000 pieces, is easily and cheaply executed. The labor in this department is mostly done by hired employees.

SEMINARY.

Returning up the road to a point nearly in front of the Community dwellings, we pass the Seminary. This is two stories high, with a tower. Here are the children’s school-room and recitation-rooms for classes of youths and adults. It is fitted up with a convenient chemical laboratory where regular courses of experimental instruction are given to pupils; and an audience-room where lectures on the physical sciences may be attended by the whole Community.

STORE.

Next is the store, a modest establishment containing most of the articles generally found in a country place. The counting-room of the Community, where the books are kept by young women, is in one wing of this building. In the other wing are the shoe and tailor shops.

BARNS.

To stock-fanciers and others, the barns may next be worth a call. The horse-barn is fitted up for the reception of 25 horses (the usual number of animals belonging to the Community), and can accommodate more. Here the hostler will always be ready to take charge of visitors’ teams. The cattle-barn a few rods farther on, is a large and rather unique affair, designed with many conveniences to serve the demands of a large farm. Seventy cattle are generally kept here, a fair proportion of which are purebred Ayrshires. The dairy result is 33,000 gals. of milk per year.

WILLOW-PLACE WORKS.

Those who wish to examine still further the Community system of industry, will find the main manufactures at Willow-Place, distant about a mile from the Oneida home. Here, situated on a first-class water-power of the Sconondoa Creek, are the trap-works, the silk-works, the forge and machine-shops, employing in all about 130 hands. The number of traps made annually, for distribution through all parts of the continent where fur-bearing animals are found, is over 300,000. They comprize eight sizes, some of which are illustrated on our last page.

SILK FACTORY.

In the silk-works is manufactured the machine-twist, which, as a finished article, we saw undergoing the final process of spooling at O.C. This manufacture employs about eighty girls, most of them hired from the neighboring villages. A department of ribbon and dress silk weaving is carried on in one part of the building.

MACHINE SHOP AND FOUNDRY.

The machine-shop is constantly busy manufacturing machinery for all the other departments. One quarter of a mile up the creek, situated on another fine water-power, are the Community foundry and saw-mill, whose productions also contribute in many ways to the manufacturing interest.

W. P. COMMUNITY.

The Willow-Place Community family numbering thirty-five, occupy a convenient dwelling separated from the factory by a plot of grass and a few fruit trees. Near them is a pleasant sheet of water for bathing and boating, and beyond is a domain of over two hundred acres of fertile land. The business affairs of Willow-Place are conducted through the home office at O.C. Their interests are wholly in common, and the two families make frequent visits and interchanges of members.

Having gone over the principal points of interest we may now return to O.C. in season for music in the Hall. The Community is not a hotel, and does not undertake to lodge visitors over night. It reserves the privilege, however, of treating as non-paying guests those who call with letters of introduction, or who have business with the Society. Good hotels for the accommodation of strangers may be found at Oneida or Oneida Castle.

PUBLICATIONS.

All respectful inquiries by visitors as to the principles and operation of the institution are freely answered. But to save the great amount of oral explanation which unlimited curiosity would impose on the attendants, visitors are referred for information to the publications of the Community announced on our first page.

EXCURSIONS.

The following places are within excursion distance of the O. C:

Place Distance How Reached
Trenton Falls 44 Ms. By R. R.
Utica 31 “ “ “
Rome 17 “ “ “
Syracuse 32 “ “ ”
Chittenango 15 “ “ “
Oneida Lake 13 “ “ “
Hamilton 18 “ “ to Eaton
Clinton 13 “ “ Carriage
Verona Springs 6 “ “ “
Cazenovia Lake 18 “ “ ”

Almost in sight from the Community tower are two small Indian villages, which represent nearly all that remains in this State of the once powerful Oneida tribe. Clinton, mentioned in the above list, is the seat of Hamilton College, distinguished for its superior observatory. At Hamilton is Madison University, a principal college of the Baptists. Chittenango is noted for its Sulphur Springs and a romantic cascade. Verona Springs is a popular place of summer resort.

FOUNDATION WALLS.

Of the Community Mansion and Outside

Showing the cellars and subterranean Passages

A. North Tower. J. K. L. M. N. Old Mansion
B. Cellar of North Wing. O. Earth-Closets.
C. Staircase. P. Great Chimney.
D. D. Cellars of the Center. R. Steam-boiler.
E. E. E. Cellars of South Wing. S. Coal-vaults.
F. Little Court. T. Subterranean Archway.
G. Bath-room. U. Engine-room.
H. Steam-coil-chamber. V. New Kitchen.
I. South Tower. W. Dye-room.
X. X. X. Hatchways.

The scale of the above plan is 90 ft., to the inch. The highway, running north and south, is a few rods distant from the east front. The railroad is on the west, running north-west and south-east. The Depot is about twenty rods south-west of the corner at U.

The building on the south, marked with broken lines, is the Old Mansion, standing mostly on a lower level than the rest. It is a wooden structure, twenty years old, and is to be removed the present location.

The rest of the buildings are made of brick. The total length of the foundation walls is 1886 feet, containing 1525 cubic yards of stone.

The width of the entire east front (from A to L) is 248 feet; that of the brick part (from tower to tower) is 188 feet. The width of the entire south front of the brick part, including the building marked U V W, is 240 feet.

RELIGIOUS FOUNDATIONS.

The views on the Community on some important points of religious doctrine are:

That the Bible is the accredited organ of the Kingdom of Heaven;
That the final interpreter of the Bible is not the church as the Papist hold, or the philologists as the Protestants hold, but the Spirit of Truth promised to all believers;
That Bible-faith is, always and every-where, faith in supernatural facts and sensible communications from God;
That man has an invisible spiritual organization, which is as substantial as his body;
That God is a dual being, and that man, as male and female, is made in the image of God;
That evil originates in the Devil, as good originates in God;
That all diseases of body and soul are traceable to diabolical influences, and that all rational medication and salvation must overcome this spiritual cause;
That Christ, in the sacrifice of himself, overcame the Devil, and thus destroyed the spiritual cause of sin and death;
That after the death and resurrection of Christ, a new dispensation of grace commenced, entirely different from the preceding Jewish dispensation;
That the special promise and gift of this new dispensation is Salvation from Sin;
That the Second Birth, including Salvation from Sin, was never experienced till the manifestation of Christ;
That regeneration comes by apprehending the resurrection of Christ and receiving the same power that raised him from the dead;
That Christ predicted and his followers expected, that his Second Advent would take place within one generation from his first coming; that all the signs of this event which he foretold, came to pass before the close of the apostolic age; consequently that simple faith is compelled to affirm that he did come the second time at or near the period of the destruction of Jerusalem.

EARLY HISTORY OF THE O. C.
The Oneida Community belongs to the class of religious Socialisms, and, so far as we know, is the only religious Community of American origin. Its founder and most of its members are descendants of New England Puritans, and were early life converts and laborers in the Revivals of the Congregational and Presbyterian churches. As Unitarianism ripened into Transcendentalism at Boston, and Transcendentalism produced Brook Farm, so Orthodoxy ripened into Perfectionism at New Haven, and Perfectionism produced the Oneida Community.

The story of the founder and foundations, of the Oneida Community, told in the fewest possible words, is this:

John Humphrey Noyes was born at Brattleboro, Vermont, in 1811. The great Finney Revival found him at twenty years of age, a college graduate, studying law, and sent him to study divinity, first at Andover and afterward at New Haven. Much study of the Bible, under the instructions of Moses Stuart, Edward Robinson and Nathaniel Taylor, and under the continued and increasing influence or the Revival afflatus, soon brought him to a new experience and new views of the way of salvation, which took the name of Perfectionism. This was in February, 1834. The next twelve years he spent in studying and teaching salvation from sin; chiefly at Putney, the residence of his father and family.

Gradually a little school of believers gathered around him. His first permanent associates were his mother, two sisters, and a brother. Then came the wives of himself and his brother, and the husbands of his two sisters. Then came George Cragin and his family from New York, and from time to time other families and individuals from various places. They built a chapel and devoted much of their time to study, and much of their means to printing. So far, however, they were not in form or theory Socialists, but only Revivalists. In fact, during the whole period or the Fourier excitement, though they read the Harbinger and the Present and watched the movement with great interest, they kept their position as simple believers in Christianity, and steadfastly criticized Fourierism. Nevertheless during these same years they were gradually and almost unconsciously evolving their own social theory, and preparing for the trial of it. Though they rejected Fourierism, they drank copiously of the spirit of the Harbinger and of the Socialists; and, have always acknowledged that they received a great impulse from Brook Farm. Thus the Oneida Community really issued from a conjunction between the Revivalism of Orthodoxy and the Socialism of Unitariarism. In 1846, when Fourierism was manifestly passing away, the little church at Putney began cautiously to experiment in Communism. In the fall of 1847, when Brook Farm was breaking up, the Putney Community had just entered upon its present social system, and under the pressure of New England conservatism, was commencing its final migration to Oneida; where it was fully settled in the course of the following year, and commenced its growth at the Oneida Community.

THE CIRCULAR.

O.C., MONDAY, MARCH 21,1870.

FREE LOVE.
This terrible combination of two very good ideas-freedom and love-was first used by the writers of the Oneida Community about twenty-one years ago, and probably originated with them. It was, however soon taken up by a very different class of speculators scattered about the country, and has come to be the name of a form of socialism with which we have but little affinity. Still it is sometimes applied to our Communities; and as we are certainly responsible for starting it into circulation, it seems to be our duty to tell what meaning we attach to it, and in what sense we are willing to accept it as a designation of our social system. The obvious and essential difference between marriage and licentious connections may be stated thus:
Marriage is a permanent union. Licentiousness deals in temporary flirtations. In marriage, Communism of property goes with Communism of persons. In licentiousness, love is paid for as hired labor.

Marriage makes a man responsible for the consequences of his acts of love to a woman. In licentiousness, a man imposes on a woman the heavy burdens of maternity, ruining perhaps her reputation and her health, and then goes his way without responsibility.

Marriage provides for the maintenance and education of children. Licentiousness ignores children as nuisances, and leaves them to chance.

Now in respect to every one of these points of difference between marriage and licentiousness, we stand with marriage. Free Love with us does not mean freedom to love to-day and leave to-morrow; nor freedom to take a women’s person and keep our property to ourselves; nor freedom to freight a woman with our offspring and send her down stream without care or help; nor freedom to beget children and leave them to the street and the poor house. Our Communities are families, as distinctly bounded and separated from promiscuous society as ordinary households. The tie that binds us together is as permanent and sacred, to say the least, as that of marriage, for it is our religion. We receive no new members (except by deception or mistake), who do not give heart and hand to the family interest for life and forever. Community of property extends just as far as freedom of love. Every man’s care and every dollar of the common property is pledged for the maintenance and protection of the women and the education of the children of the Community. Bastardy, in any disastrous sense of the word, is simply impossible in such a social state. Whoever will take the trouble to follow our track from the beginning, will find no forsaken women or children by the way. In this respect we claim to be in advance of marriage and civilization.

We are not sure how far the class or socialist called ” Free Lovers ” would claim for themselves anything like the above defense from the charge of reckless and cruel freedom; but our impression is that their position, scattered as they are, without organization or definite separation from surrounding society, makes it impossible for them to follow and care for the consequences of their freedom, and thus exposes then to the just charge of licentiousness. At all events their platform is entirely different from ours, and they must answer for themselves. We are not “Free Lovers” in any sense that makes love less binding or responsible than it is in marriage.

Having thus disclaimed the freedom of licentiousness, we must now complete our definition of Free Love, by also disclaiming some of thee liberties of marriage.

Freedom used to be understood at the South, to be liberty for a man to ” wallop his nigger.” Something like this kind of one-sided freedom–liberty of the strong to oppress the weak–seems to be recognized and tolerated as inevitable and right in all the popular forms of sexual relations. Marriage, not less–perhaps, even more—than the looser sexual institutions, places woman the power of man. The liberty of marriage, as commonly understood and practiced, is the liberty of a man to sleep habitually with a woman, liberty to please himself alone in his dealings with her, liberty to expose her to child-bearing without care or consultation.

The term Free Love, as understood by the Oneida Community, does not mean any such freedom of sexual proceedings as this. The household arrangements of our families provide separate sleeping apartments for the sexes, and, as far as possible and agreeable, for individuals. The theory of sexual interchange which governs all the general measures of the Community, and which it is bound to realize sooner or later, and, as soon as it can, is just that which in ordinary society governs the proceedings in courtship. It is the theory of equal rights of women and men, and the freedom of both from habitual and legal obligations to personal fellowship.
It is the theory that love after marriage, and always and forever, should be what it is before marriage–a glowing attraction on both sides, and not the odious obligation of one party, and the sensual recklessness of the other.

Besides all this, Oneida Communists have a special theory in regard to the act of sexual intercourse itself, which places it under unusual restrictions. They hold that two distinct kinds of sexual intercourse ought to be recognized; one simply social, and the other propagative; and that the propagative should only be exercised when impregnation is intended and mutually agreed upon. It is difficult to treat such a subject as this freely in these columns. We barely allude to it for the present, referring the reader to what we have published in other forms. But we assure all who really wish to know the inner truth about us, that a clear understanding of us on this point is most essential. Sexual intercourse without the propagative act (except when propagation is intended), is all that we tolerate in Free Love; and this will sooner or later be known to be a very different affair from that kind of sexual commerce against which all criminal statutes are directed. So far as this matter is concerned, Free Love, in the Oneida sense of the term, is much less free, in the gross, sensual way, than marriage.

The thing we have done, for which we are called “Free Lovers,” is simply this: We have left the simple form of marriage and advanced to the complex stage of it. We have no quarrel with those who believe in exclusive dual marriage and faithfully observe it, but we have concluded that for us there is a better way. The honor and faithfulness that constitute an ideal marriage, may exist between two hundred as well as two; while the guarantees for women and children are much greater in the Community than they can be in any private family. The results of the complex system we may sum up by saying, that men are rendered more courteous, women more winning, children are better born, and both sexes are personally free.

DOMESTIC ARRANGEMENTS.

“How do you manage your housework?” the visitor asks. ” Everything seems to be done, but how is it done? You, madam, receive company, but who does the kitchen work? There are no servants in the house you say, but who does the drudgery? Do you all work so many hours? How do you contrive to keep any equality?” Well we are not very anxious to keep equality; we (pity) any one that does not love to be useful; so far as equality is desired it is secured by rotation. Variety, which is a greater object with us than equality, is secured by the same principle. We have officers that we call mothers of the work, usually two, chosen by unanimous vote, trust-worthy women, to whom is committed the whole dispensation of in-door work. They arrange it once a week. Not that they revise the whole programme so often, but they consult every Sunday, and make more or less individual changes.

There are five principal departments, the children’s house, the kitchen, the printing-office, the spooling-room and chores (the last including dining-room work, dish-washing, care of rooms, etc). in which to make changes. Each of these departments has a permanent head; that is, one who has general charge or supervision for a year or a term of years; but the subordinates are constautly changing.

Constance, for instance, healthy and ambitious, works in the printing-office a month, or three months or six months even, if she does not got tired. Her hours here are from seven to eleven in the forenoon, five days a week. Besides she waits on the table at supper or does some other light chore. Then when she wants a change, or it is convenient to put some one in her place, she goes to the children’s house perhaps. This is her pet work. There she must be on hand to help dress the children by six o’clock in the morning, and stay to-day till one o’clock. To-morrow she goes at one and stays till seven, or till the little ones are all in bed. She is there in the forenoon of one day and the afternoon of the next. Her term is indefinite, but when for any reason a change is desirable, you may find her perchance in the kitchen. There she has to work a half day; is let off perhaps an hour to go to a class; but has to take her turn with the corps in getting up early to cook breakfast, and in staying late for stragglers to supper. She will serve there three or four weeks and then be glad of a change. The silk-room more attractive, and for a while she will enjoy spooling the beautiful hues, as much as a lady enjoys her embroidery. Her time there is three or four hours a day (not consecutive), and she may have an additional chore about the house. In the chores she would perhaps work in the dining-room after breakfast, wash pitchers and tumblers at noon, and silver at night, occupying three hours, in all.

There is no cast-iron about this system of rotation. The mothers use all judgment in assigning work, having reference always to age, strength and inclination. There are numerous exemptions. Some have no allotted work, but are excellent volunteers, and help do the thousand unmentionable little offices which go to make a cheerful home.

The departments referred to, do not include all the in-door industry which is subject to rotation. There is the sewing-machine to be kept running, and here we have frequent changes as the work is monotonous and wearing. The offices of librarian is more permanent, and the book-keeping retains one set two and three years. The florists make a summer’s work of it. Mrs. S. has had the charge of the bedding (in the house, not in the garden) for two or three years; Mrs T. has made the pickles, etc.

Frequent changes keep the appetite fresh, and the enthusiasm of new hands always enlivens a group.

Persons develop faculties and gifts in the career of various departments, and every-where there is a leveling up to the standard of the best. In a company of a hundred there will be housewifery excellence of every kind, and the highest excellence will inevitably become the standard, in the cooking, in cleanliness, in taste, in the whole domestic order.

BENEFITS OF COMMUNISM.

The advantages of the large family which strike the observer at the very outset are:

1. That its’ dwelling is well heated;
2. That it has good cooking;
3. That it has abundance or fruit;
4. That it is exceedingly cleanly;
5. That it is exempt from ” washing day.”

Take these things in their order. In common houses heated by stoves there will be perhaps two or three rooms over-warm, while the chambers and rest of the house are places of shivering cold.

Now in the Community dwelling, there is an area of half an acre (including all floors), from which winter is excluded. Go where you will; from cellar to attic is the same even summer temperature, and this without having the care and dust of a single stove. All is done by a steam heating apparatus attended by a single man.

One of the, best things in life is wholesome cooking. Sour bread, heavy biscuits, stale butter and greasy meat are a grief to the much-enduring stomach of man. Whether such things exist or not in isolated households we can not positively say; our suspicion is that they sometimes invade the small dining-room. But when you come to cook for two hundred, it is a different thing. You have the best skill in the whole body for your standard, and man-power enough to carry it strongly through. The consequence is that your bread is superb, your soup and omelet are unexceptionable; your dinner is on the table at the minute, and is never a botch.

Abundance of fruit, which to the single household is costly and difficult of attainment, in the large family is almost a matter of course. Besides the stores of preserved fruits of every description which are always at the command of the kitchen department, open baskets of red-cheeked apples stand here and there in the passages all winter long, for the free use of those who will take them.

As to cleanliness the large family can not fail to have this virtue. All dirt-making processes are restricted and reduced to a minimum. The taste of the neatest prevails, and united strength makes short work with rubbish.

In this large family, the periodical washing, that goblin of the ordinary household, is transformed into jolly, fog-crowned demon, who presides over a suit of steam washing-machines, wringers and dryers, all in a laundry by himself. All that is known of washing day is the return of smooth white garments to you each week; the how and why are concealed, unless you seek them out in the premises devoted to this work.

Those items are of course secondary in importance to many others, but still, a gain, even in such every-day matters, as warmth, food, cleanliness, and laundry service, tells on the sum total of mortal happiness.

MEANS OF GOVERNMENT.

The measures relied upon for good government, in the O. C., are, first, daily evening meetings, which all are expected to attend, and in which religious,
social and business matters are freely discussed ; and secondly, the system of mutual criticism. This system takes the place of backbiting in ordinary society, and is regarded as one of the greatest means of improvement and fellowship. All of the members are accustomed to voluntarily invite the benefit.

Of criticism from time to time. Sometimes a person is criticized by the entire family; at other times by a committee of six, eight, twelve, or more, selected by himself from among those best acquainted with him, and best able to do justice to his character. In these criticizms the most perfect sincerity is expected; and in practical experience it is found best for the subject to receive his criticism without replying. There is little danger that the general verdict will be unjust. Criticism is an agency of exposure of course, and as such tests a person’s moral courage; but it also often takes the form of commendation, and reveals hidden virtues as well as secret faults. It is always acceptable to those who wish to see themselves as others see them. The experience of the Community shows that this method of improvement is effectual. Where it has fair play, it gradually ceases to be needed. There is now but little criticism in the Community compared with what was used in its early years; and with the young people now growing up, the prospectt is that all its severer features will disappear.

VITAL STATISTICS.

The children born in the Community are nursed and cared for by their mother’s until about the age of 15 months, when they are placed in the care of the children’s department, until the age of puberty. The period from 2 years old to 15, is usually in isolated life, one of considerable risk; the mortality even in country places ranges quite high.

Dunglison’s Medical Dictionary gives the mortality under 2 years of age, in Philadelphia, at 81 per cent of that total mortality. This is a higher rate than obtains in the country. Mortality from 2 to 15 years of age, 14 percent.

The United States Census of 1860 gave the following rates in New England and Now York State. They are probably some higher than would be the case in a purely country population, in consequence of the fact that the returns of the two great cities of New York and Boston are included:
Under 2 years of age, 25 percent of total deaths.
Between 2 and 15 years, 20 percent of total deaths.
From birth to 15 years, 45 percent of total deaths.

The population of these states was about 6,000,000. Estimating the population of New York City and Boston at 1,500,000 or one quarter of the total population, and supposing in the city the percentage of infant mortality in the total deaths to be double that of the country, we must make a reduction in the mortality of the first class to represent the country mortality of these states.

They will then stand:
Under 2 years of age, 20 percent of total deaths
Between 2 and 15 years, 20 percent of total deaths.
Mortality to 15 years, 40 percent of total deaths.

Let us now see how this rate of mortality in the two periods of childhood compares with that in the Community.

Under 2 years of age (the limit to this period is put at the time when the children pass from the care of their mothers to that of the children’s department which is a little under 2 years of age) the mortality in the twenty-one years of the Community’s residence at Oneida, has been 10 percent of the total deaths in the same time.

Mortality from 2 to 15 years ( period during which children are cared for by the Community) 8.8 percent of total deaths. This includes a healthy girl who had left the care of the children’s department and was very nearly 15 years of age, who was carried off suddenly by diphtheria which was prevailing in the neighborhood as an epidemic. lf this case were excepted, the mortality in the children’s department would be reduced to 6.6 percent of the total deaths. This percentage is caused by the death of two boys at eight years, and one girl at two. They are the only deaths which have occurred In the children’s department, which has cared for a constant average of thirty children for 21 years. The death of the little girl occurred from whooping-cough. She showed a peculiar susceptibility to the dangerous form of the disease, which was evidently inherited.

As a relative died in a similar way several years ago. The disease was quite harmless with the other children.

The mortality from birth to 15 years of age, including both periods, was 24.8
percent of the total deaths let us recapitulate:

RATIO OF MORTALITY TO TOTAL DEATHS 1N TWO PERIODS.
First period; under 2 years of age
City mortality (Philadelphia) …31 percent
Country mortality (New England and N. Y., exclusive of large cities)…20 percent
O.C. mortality….16 percent

Second period; 2 to 15 years.
City mortality (Philadelphia) …14 percent
Country mortality (New England and N. Y., exclusive of large cities)…20 percent
O.C. mortality….8.8 percent

Both periods; from birth to 15 years
City mortality (Philadelphia) …45 percent
Country mortality (New England and N. Y., exclusive of large cities)…40 percent
O.C. mortality….24.8 percent

With new buildings in process of erection, and entering upon an era of scientific propagation, we expect the next twenty years to show still more favorable results of Community life.

O. C. SCHOOL.

SIXTY-FIVE scholars between the ages of fifteen and thirty attend our embryo college. Of these, thirty-six are young women. Until the establishment of this school in the fall of 1869, the education of our young folks, aside from the usual elementary studies, was somewhat desultory. Latin, French, German, History, Algebra, Geometry, Draughting, Astronomy, Microscopy, all had their volaries. But when the new Seminary was fairly completed and ready for use, Professors T. R. Noyes and J. J. Skinner announced their purpose of giving all the rising generation in the O. C., a regular college education. True it might take longer than at Yale or Harvard, as our scholars spend but half of each day in study; but then we are at home all the time and can be as many years about it as we choose.

In pursuance of this plan the pupils were classified according to their attainments and the branches to be entered upon, and the hours for recitation were given out. Mathematics came first. A thorough knowledge of Mathematics, our Professors argued, is the foundation of a scientific education. “But,” says a young Miss, “I can’t bear mathematics, it is so dry.” “That is precisely the reason, Madamoiselle, why we shall have to put you into it. If left to yourself you would probably never study it”.
“ I dare say I shouldn’t. I think the Languages so much more interesting.”
“We intend,” says the Professor, ” that all shall be well up in the usual branches studied at College, and then each can make a specialty of any one.”
So we have commenced with classes in Algebra, Geometry, Physics, etc.
At nine A. M. the first recitation commences. AIgebra; Prof. Skinner. There Are twenty-five in the class, about equally divided as to sex, number and proficiency. At ten, Trigonometry and Physics on alternate days; same teacher. In the first there is one young woman and ten young men. In the Physics the sexes are more evenly divided. At two P. M. another class in Algebra; Prof. Noyes. Three days of the week this latter gentleman also has a thriving class in Chemical Analysis. The first story of the building is devoted to a Chemical laboratory, fitted up with most of the modem improvements, and lecture-room. Folding doors separate them and these being thrown open during the weekly lectures on Chemistry, display the interior of this laboratory, and afford the best opportunity, for exhibiting the experiments with which the lectures are accompanied.

There are also several classes in Arithmetic, Geography and Grammar, for those who were found deficient in those branches. These will not be considered as part of the regular course after the first year, but will be attended to in the primary school. Immature as our institution is, we seem to have grappled successfully with the two vexed problems, combination of the sexes in study and the combination of study and manual labor.

STIRPICULTURE.

THIS word (meaning race-culture), applied to the improvement of human beings by scientific breeding, is beginning to have place in the minds of the thoughtful. Darwin’s discovery of the principles of natural selection and the survival of the fittest among the lower forms of life, leads right on to the idea of improvement of man by voluntary selection. If strawberries can be developed by care in selecting and crossing, from the insignificant field of variety to the magnificent Triomphe Grand; if pigeons can be made into pouters and fan-tails; if, as Lord Somerville has said, the sheep-breeder can chalk out the form which he fancies on paper, and in a few generations can bring his flock to that exact pattern, what sense is there in neglecting to apply this agency to the elevation of the human race ?

In ordinary society the is forbidden. Good results are only obtained by chance. Mating is left to the same irresponsible, careless guidance that prevails among the buffaloes and antelopes on the prairie; and if a mistake is made there is no remedy. Yet notwithstanding this general impotence of society, history still shows that all use good that all the good that has yet been accomplished in the world, has resulted from providential direction in the matter of parentage. If men have neglected to work by science, God has not. The history of Abraham and the Jews is a splendid example of stirpiculture, with Christ and Paul as specimens of the result. The world now begins to see the importance of this subject, and demands that it be investigated. Science points out the conditions. The O. C. fulfills them. In the Community are the requisite numbers, the requisite culture and character, the varied development, the theory and practice of self-control, and above all the freedom for experiment, that are necessary to found a bureau of stirpiculture. The science is in its infancy; every thing has to learned. We may make mistakes, may have to serve long and patiently; but there can be mistake about the final result, which will be to place the science of human breeding at least on a level with that which, in the case of plants and animals, has produced the Race-horse and the Triomphe de Grand.

THE SHORT DRESS.

THE short dress was adopted by the women of the Community twenty years ago, very soon after its organization at Oneida, and, so far as we know, the fashion originated with us. Its advantages over the long skirts, are first, health; second, comfort; third, convenience; and these advantages we prefer to the blind and unreasonable dictates of fashion. The costume is thought by some to be deficient in grace; but we contended with Greenough’s principle that the beautiful is to be found in the useful. Prejudice too frequently disables the judgment; especially in this matter of women’s dress. A day’s observation only, sometimes reverses previous impressions. We had a visitor of taste a few days since whose first exclamation at the short skirts was anything but complimentary. On the second day he entered in his note-book the following memorandum: “More reconciled to the short dress.” He admitted frankly, that for us It was just the thing. This to all we claim.

We have studied economy, as well as health and convenience in this mode of dress. Several yards less clothe suffice than would be necessary to make the long skirt. Of course the weight is proportionately less. Its advantage over the fashionable long skirts for going up and down stairs, getting in and out of carriages, walking, rambling over the farm, and taking part with the men in light out-of-door work, as is sometimes desirable, is obvious to all.

MONEY MATTERS.

THE entire financial history of the Community in brief is the following: it commenced business at its present location in 1848, but did not adopt the practice of taking annual inventories till 1857. Of the period between these dates we can give but a general account. The Community in the course of that period, had five or six branches with common interests, scattered in several States. The Property Register, kept from the beginning, shows that the amount of property brought In by the members of all the Communities, up to January 1, 1857 was $107,706.45. But the amount held at Oneida at that date, as stated in the first regular Inventory, was only $41,740. and the Branch-Communities at Putney, Wallingford and elsewhere, at the same time had only $25,532.22. So that the total assets of the associate Communities were $67,272.22, or $40,434.23 less than the amount brought in by the members. In other words between the years 1848 and 1857, the associated Communities sunk (in round numbers) $40,000. Various causes may be assigned for this, such as inexperience, lack of established business, persecution and extortions, the burning of the community store, the sinking of the sloop Rebecca Ford in the Hudson River, the maintenance of an expensive printing family at Brooklyn, the publication of a free paper, etc.

In the course of several years previous to 1857, the Community worked out of the policy of living in scattered detachments, and concentrated its forces at Oneida and Wallingford. From the first of January 1857, when its capital was $41,740. to the present time, the progress of its money-matters is recorded in the following statistics, drawn from its annual inventories:
1857 Net earnings, $ 5,470.11
1858 “ “ 1,768.60
1859 “ “ 10,278.86
1860 “ “ 15,611.03
1861 “ “ 5,877.89
1862 “ “ 9,858.78
1863 “ “ 44,755.80
1864 “ “ 61,882.62
1865 “ “ 12,382.81
1866 “ “ 19,198.74
Total net earnings in ten years, $180,580.26; being a yearly average income of $18,058.02, above all expenses. The succeeding inventories show the following result:

Net earnings in 1807, $21,416.02.
Net earnings in 1868, $53,100.83.
Net earnings to 1869, $30,140.55.

being an average for the last three years of $33,812,46 per annum.

ADMISSIONS.

The O. C., and Branch-Communities are constantly receiving applications for admission which we have to reject. It is difficult, to state in any brief way all their reasons for thus limiting their numbers; but some of them are these: 1. The parent Community at Oneida is full. Its buildings are adapted to a certain number, and it wants no more. 2. The Branch-Communities, though they have not attained the normal size, have as many they can well accommodate, and must grow in numbers only as they can grow in capital and buildings. 3. The kind of men and women who are likely to make the Communities grow, spiritually and financially, are scarce, and have to be sifted out slowly and cautiously. It should be distinctly understood that these Communities are not asylums, for pleasure seekers or persons who merely want a home and a living. They will receive only those who are very much in earnest in religion. They have already done their full share of labor in criticizing and working over raw recruits, and intend hereafter to devote themselves to other jobs (a plenty of which they have on hand), receiving only such members as seem likely to help and not hinder their work. As candidates for Community multiply, it is obvious that they can not all settle at Oneida and Wallingford. Other Communities most be to formed and the best way for earnest disciples generally is to work and wait, until the Spirit of Pentecost shall come on their neighbors, and give them Communities right where they are. Our ambition is not to increase our numbers at Oneida and Wallingford and build up a little local sect, but to set a good example that shall light the way to universal Communism.

COMMUNITY JOURNAL.

ONEIDA
MARCH 14th-A tulip-tree standing on the north side of the new wing, presented to-day a unique appearance, and attracted considerable attention. This tree had a profusion of flowers, last summer, tulip shaped, as its name indicates, and wherever there was a flower, there is now a little calyx cup, of the size of a small wine-glass. These hundreds of cups, held upright, were sheltered from the wind, and the snow of Tuesday came down soft and still, and filled them all to the brim with a good rounding up besides. The brick wall of the house gave a dark back-ground to the picture, and heightened the effect. To the imagination of one, the tree seemed a huge cotton-plant, each cup containing a ball of cotton. To another, the imagery suggested little frosted cup-cakes; while to another, it was a vivid representation or ice-cream served up in thee most delicate manner, in these tiny cups.

March 15th.-Smoked glass was in request yesterday, for looking at the spot on the sun. The dark spot, which could be distinctly seen above the center of the sun’s disc, appeared to the eye about the size of a silver half-dollar. The “spot” viewed through a small telescope kept at the Seminary, was resolved into five or six separate spots.

–Our head kitchen man, H.J. S., though inveterately given to punning, and “can’t help it,” as one remarked lately, has an eminently practical side to his character, as the numerous labor-saying inventions and conveniences he has introduced into the kitchen within the last twelve months testify. His latest improvement is contrivance to facilitate the frying of doughnuts which has been pronounced by an enthusiast, to be worthy of ” letters patent.” It consists of a perforated tin disc suited to the size and shape of the kettle, with a round iron standard attached by a screw to the center of it. A wire open-work cover of the same size is made to fit right over the top of this disc, by allowing the central standard to pass through a tin tube that forms the axis of this wire cover. The two parts are prevented from coming nearer than an inch and a half to each other by a small iron cross-pin through the standard. When in use take off the wire cover and put as many doughnuts on the lower disc as can be fried at one time. Then drop the wire cover over them and immerse the hole in the kettle of hot butter, lard, or whatever you use, the central standard, rising high enough to serve as a handle. In this way the cakes are kept entirely covered and require no attention till they are done. The advantages of the contrivance are, 1. The cakes are all put in at the same time, and all taken out at the same time, saving the time and trouble of picking up each individual cake and dropping it in and also the time and labor taking them out one by one; and also securing an equal amount of cooking to each individual cake. 2. All the time and heating labor of standing over the stove to watch and turn the cakes is saved; and while one machine is doing service in the kettle, the person can be preparing cakes and filling another. 3. It has been found that, where it takes six or seven minutes to fry cakes in the ordinary way, it takes but five minutes when they are kept wholly covered as by this method. Finally the cakes are found to be fully as light when cooked in this way, as they were by the ordinary method.

–Our theatricals do themselves this winter. Formerly they have required laborious preparations. The old play of five acts, the cantata, the overture, were brought out through much tribulation of rehearsal, scenic contrivance, and costuming; but this is the era of spontaneity on our stage. If any one has a song, a recitation or reading, a feat of gymnast, any thing for wholesome mirth or sober entertainment, he gives his name to Mrs. M., who prepares a programme of what is offered, for the following Sunday evening. In this way we have had stage performances every week, and a great part of our pleasure has been in surprise. Who knew that Charles was such a singer? What a comic vein Milford and Lorenzo discover! What athletes we have amongst us! One (of the most pleasing performances was worked up in the children’s school, the “Midshipman”, an opera for children found in “Our Young Folks” for March.

CORRESPONDENCE OF THE CIRCULAR.

WE receive by almost every mail a large assortment of letters from all parts of the country. They keep one person busy most of the time, in opening, reading and answering them. The lady who attends to this business, has made out the following classification of their general characters and objects:
1. Letters asking immediate admission to the Community.
2. Letters asking to be received on probation.
3. Letters asking for work in our businesses.
4. Letters from persons wanting a home.
5. Letters from persons wishing to visit us.
6. Letters asking for general information.
7. Letters asking impudent questions.
8. Letters of inquiry about social matters.
9. Letters of Inquiry about the Berean, wanting to buy or borrow it.
10. Letters asking us to help inventors to get patents.
11. Letters asking us to manufacture patent articles.
12. Letters asking us to adopt children.
13. Letters asking us to educate children.
14. Letters asking us to help form new Communities.
15. Letters asking us to form new branches of our Community.
16. Letters of inquiry about American Socialisms.
17. Letters from persons wishing to sell American Socialisms.
18. Letters asking for the CIRCULAR.
19. Letters, ordering the CIRCULAR to be stopped.

The writers of most of these letters will find answers in various parts of this paper. To the rest we say in a wholesale way: Dear Friends: –We have considerable to do, to run our large family and all its businesses, and publish a paper that does not half pay expenses. Please consider well before you
ask us to take on more burdens, and don’t be offended if we neglect to answer you. All letters proposing to help us in any reasonable way, will be thankfully received and sure of answers.
Yours truly, O. C.

The lady-scribe aforesaid wishes us to make the following suggestions to correspondents:
1. That they always give their post-office address;
2. That they write their names and address plainly;
3. That they should not ask us to send the CIRCULAR to their friends without express authority;
4. That they should not ask us to send more than one copy free into one family;
5. That they help us bear the expense of the CIRCULAR, if they can;
6. If they can not, that they make short excuses, or none at all.

The lady also thinks that those who are really poor and feel thankful for a free paper, and those who hesitate about sending for the CIRCULAR because they can not pay for it, should be encouraged.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

F.H.W., Minn.—“ Somebody would confer a favor by telling in the CIRCULAR how to bake bread by steam. Must it be superheated?”

We are not yet prepared to give any directions in regard to baking by steam. We are satisfied it can be done, but our experiments lead us to think that the steam will have to be superheated.

A. B. C., Ill.—“Will some or your members versed in science tell me how to make gas for paper balloons?”

Take zinc, cut in small shavings, or granulated by pouring while melted into water; place it in a bottle or flask fitted with a tube to convey the gas into the balloon, and pour over it a mixture of one part sulphuric acid with 10 parts of water. Cautions: 1. While granulating the zinc look out for your eyes. 2. Mix the sulphuric acid, by pouring it slowly into the water, stirring briskly. By neglecting this precaution many persons have been injured. 3. Never bring any kind of light near the apparatus or balloon. The gas when mixed with air is as explosive as gunpowder.
J. H., N. Y.–“Will you give me the Patent Office address at Washington? I have a new invention I wish to get patented.”
We think the best course for you to pursue, is to submit your invention to the inspection of the Patent agency of Munn & Co., 37 Park Row, New York, where your business will doubtless be promptly attended to.

S. A. O., N.Y.– ” There are several families here who wish for a good medical book, such as every family needs. Which would you recommend?”
We think the Bible is the best medical book extant. We do not know of any other that we, very heartily recommend.

FROM OUR LETTER-BOX.

–Vermont, March 10, 187O.–“Your paper is a most welcome visitor in our cottage among the mountains. It always comes laden with good food for our hungry souls. To read the Home Talks is truly refreshing. We first asked for the CIRCULAR with a desire for information concerning your family and more especially the principles which govern your actions. Being unprejudiced, we have read and studied your publications with an ever-increasing interest, and now accept your paper as a gift with feelings of love and gratitude. We look for its coming as for a good long letter from home.
M. & L. D.

–, Iowa, March 7, 1870.—“ After having been constant readers of your very interesting paper for nearly five years, my wife and I have become so attached to it that we can not, through pride merely, deprive ourselves of the rich mental feast it affords us every week; and all for the mere asking. We can not express to you in words the gratitude we owe you for its weekly visits. When I am reading it I often, very often, feel as if I should be glad to see you all, and express to you the delight I feel in reading a certain piece; but when I come to another there is the same feeling, and I give up the attempt to designate any particular piece when all are so good. K. R. C.

–, Va.–Having seen by Pomeroy’s Democrat of Feb. 23d, that in the next issue the editor would give an account of a visit to the Oneida Community, and having for years felt a warm interest in the cause of human progress, I determined to procure the same, although I was satisfied that the account would be given by one prejudiced and therefore unable to do justice in the premises. Nevertheless
he has done better than I expected, and his article may do much good by setting men and women throughout the country to thinking in the right direction. I have long cherished the hope of seeing such Communities established, possessing requisites of permanence, and rejoice to know that they do exist, and are demonstrating the great truth that human beings can live together in peace, purity and happiness. . W. F.

–, N. Y.–” I have read your paper nearly four years, with interest and profit, and, I feel it due to your liberality, to inform you about its reception here. I have introduced it to my acquaintances, and some like to read it; others reject it as heresy. I confess your social system has troubled me, as hard to reconcile with the spirituality of religion. Yet I can not view it as more immoral or unhappy than most cases of marriage. I think Dr. Watts correct, in saying there are few happy matches. Your views of the Second Coming, are well sustained by quotations from the Bible, and tend to strengthen my hope in the resurrection and a better life. K. S. H.

–, N. Y. –“Dear CIRCULAR: — It is near twenty years since I first made your acquaintance. Since that time you have come to me regularly fifty-two times every year. Yes, I have read your columns in nearly one thousand numbers. And from my long acquaintance with your principles and the mode of life you represent, I have more than once had occasion, and felt it my duty, to defend your people against prejudices and false charges made by enemies and by those who were ignorant. It would afford me great satisfaction to receive you into my family for another twenty years; and as I expect you will be published that length of time and longer, I desire your continuance. And if during that time you expand into a daily paper, it will only fulfill a prediction made by many who have watched the growth and spirit of Communism. That you may thus continue to exist is the desire of your humble servant and friend. C. R.
.

–, N.Y. –“That I may not seem to disregard your injunction to the affect that, you will be ‘inquired of by the house of Israel to do these things for them’, I write once more. I don’t know but my affirmation last spring that I was going to take the CIRCULAR forever was sufficient, although when I said that, I may have thought that I should live that length of time. But the experiences of this winter have undeceived me by bringing upon me my first serious sickness, during which I not only laid no plans for the future, but had not much concern in present. Now, however, I seem to be recovering, and my first act looking to the future, shall
to renew my subscription for the CIRCULAR, and this time, pay for it; thus getting myself off the free-list, and on such a footing that I can speak my mind about them people if I wish to, like other friends of theirs. L.C.C.
CENTER OF THE EMPIRE STATE

N. New York City. E. Lake Erie
R. Rouse’s Point. F. Niagara Falls.
L. St. Lawrence River. C. C. Central Railroad
O. Lake Ontario. M.M. Midland Railroad

The above is an outline of the State of New York leaving out its islands, reduced by photograph from Ensign and Bridgman’s Map. We have traced the routes of the Central and Midland railroads across it, as accurately as we could on so small a scale. Just below their intersection and exactly where they would have intersected if the Central had not made a elbow to Rome, there is a white dot, showing the place of the O. C. With that dot for a center, we have struck a circle, which, the reader will see, touches the three principal extremities of the State — New York City, Niagara Falls, and Rouse’s Point. The centrality of the position, both with reference to the area of the State and to the great railroads that cross it, is obvious to inspection.

SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

“Are persons allowed to leave the Community?” Of course. What power have we to detain them? “What do you pay those who leave?” Our practice has been to return to them what they put in; or it they put in nothing, to give them a good outfit of clothing and a hundred dollars. “Do you vote?” No. “What Is your diet?” Varied, but composed mainly of vegetables and fruit. Tea, coffee, tobacco and ardent spirits are not used. “Are you Spiritualists?” No; we keep clear of the rapping manifestations. “Do you belong to the Woman’s Rights party?” Women in the Community seem to have got their rights, and so don’t talk much about them. “Will the Community survive the death of its founder? ” It, seems likely to survive ordinary society.

THE TRAPPERS GUIDE

By S. Newhouse
And other trappers and sportsmen of the Oneida Community. Edited by J. H.
Noyes. A book for the trapper, the hunter and the farmer. It tells how to trap all kinds of fur-bearing, animals; how to cure their skins; how live in the woods; how to build boats, and catch fish in winter; how to destroy the pests of the farm and poultry yard; how to hunt, deer, buffalo and other game. It gives narratives of the exploits and experience of trappers and sportsman, old and young. It tells where the best traps are made. It is a book for lovers of wood-craft, for excursionists, and for boys.

It is an octavo volume of 216 pages, containing thirty-two fullpage illustrations of animals, forest life, etc., and numerous woodcuts of traps and trapper’s appliances. Published by OAKLEY & MASON, New York. Price of second edition, bound in cloth, $1.50. Price of third edition in extra cloth, $2.00. For sale by Oneida Community. Sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of price.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.
(From the Albany Evening Journal.)
A very readable work, giving, with commendable brevity, a clearer idea tof the Fur-bearing animals of the world, than can be found in any half dozen volumes of natural history.

(From the Chicago Republican.) A plain, straight-forward manual of instruction for capturing all sorts of fur-bearing animals, and all who intend to follow wood-life, will find it an authentic teacher and a very interesting companion.

(From the Utica Morning Herald.)
The Trapper’s Guide is an interesting and highly instructive volume. . . Evidently, the work of a man who thoroughly understands the nature and habits of animals and the best means of capturing them.

(From the Portland Transcript.)
This book has great practical value for the trapper, and is by no means without interest to the lover of woodcraft and the reading public generally.

(From the Boston Commonwealth.)

Ono of the most entertaining compilations that we have seen for a long time, being full of interest and value to those who delight, either actually or ideally, in a wild life.

O. C. STEEL TRAPS.
These implements, designed for the use of trappers in all parts of the world, were first brought to general notice twenty years ago by Mr. S. Newhouse, a member of the O. C., and (in his youth) a practical trapper. Since then the ingenuity of the Community mechanics has been directed to perfecting their details and modes of manutacture. With the reputed excellence thus gained, has come an increased demand for them, matched by increased facilities, until the Community Trap-Works are now probably by far the most extensive and complete of any in the world. The number of traps here made and distributed to all the northern parts of the Continent during the last ten years has amounted to a total of about 3,000,000. There are eight sizes and descriptions, some of which are here represented:
No. 0. No. 1

No. 0. The Rat Trap, single spring; strong enough to hold the Mus-krat. No. I The Musk-rat Trap, single spring; adapted to the capture of all the smaller fur-bearing animals. No.1 ½ . The Mink Trap, single spring. No. 2. The Fox Trap, double spring. No. 3 The Otter Trap, double spring.

No. 4

No. 4. The Beaver Trap, double spring; spread of jaws, 6 ½ inches. No. 5. The Bear Trap; spread of jaws, 11 ½ inches; weight or each spring 2 pounds 10 ozs.; weight of Trap, 17 pounds; -suitable for taking the common black Bear. No. 6. The Bear Trap-large size; spread of jaws, 16 Inches; weight of each spring, 6 pounds; weight of the Trap, with chain, 42 pounds; made throughout, except the pan and pan-post, of wrought iron and steel; strong enough to hold the Moose or the Grizzly Bear.

A swivel is attached to every trap, and chains are furnished when desired. Springs warranted to stand under water.

Price-list and illustrated catalogue sent on application. Address, Oneida Community, Oneida, N. Y.

O. C. MACHINE TWIST.

THE reputation which this silk has gained among practical manufacturers as well as in multitudes of private households, renders any particular statement of its merits unnecessary. The Community attempted to make a good, honest thread, and it is believed they have succeeded. It is made on new machinery, of the best Tsatlee stock, and is warranted to hold out in weight and length. It is put up on various sized spools, each spool giving the quantity of silk on its label. The following are specimens of the numerous testimonials we have to the quality or this Twist:

Auburn, N. Y., Mar. 5, 1869.
O. C., GENTLEMEN: – We have made a careful examination of your Machine Twist, and have no hesitation in saying it is the best we have tried.
JNO. DUNN JR, & CO., Boot and Shoe Manufacturers.
Detroit, Mich., April 5, 1869
O. C., GENTLEMEN:-We take pleasure, after two years trial, in recommending your Twist as greatly superior to any other.
ELDRIDGE &CO., Agents in Domestic Sewing Machines
Detroit, Mich., April 3, 1869.
O. C., GENTLEMEN:-We take pleasure in stating that the Machine Silk made by the Oneida Community is the very best we have used, and we have purchased the best we could find at all times.
F. BUHL & CO.

New York, Dec. 5, 1868.
O. C. GENTLEMEN: – We have been using thee Machine Silk of the Oneida Community for some time past, and consider it the best in this market.
FREEMAN & BURR Clothing Warehouse, 138 & 140 Fulton Street

Syracuse, N. Y., Mar. 1, 1869.
O. C., GENTLEMEN:-Your Twist gives better satisfaction than any silk I have ever sold. Spools are full and silk strong and smooth.
J. R. WHITLOCK Dealer in Dry Goods.

Rochester, N. Y., March 8,1869.
O. C., GENTLEMEN: –We have never used any kind of silk that has given us such entire satisfaction as the O. C. Silk.
J. & M. CRAVEN Shoe Manufactures

WILLOW-PLACE FOUNDRY.

ALL kinds of agricultural, machine, and light castings on hand or made to order. A full assortment of wagon-skeins and lifting-jacks always on hand. Address, Oneida Community.

MOUNT TOM PRINTING-OFFICE

(Wallingford Community), Wallingford, Conn. With new type and presses, this establishment is always ready to receive orders for Cards, Circulars, Price-lists, Pamphlets, and the lighter kinds of Job Printing. Particular attention paid to Bronze work and Color Printing for Labels. Orders from abroad should be addressed to Wallingford Community, Wallingford, Conn.

A BOOK FOR THE TIMES.

HISTORY OF AMERICAN SOCIALISMS,
By JOHN HUMPHREY NOYES.
Giving a clear account of the experiments of the past;

OWEN’S COMMUNITY, COLLIN’S COMMUNITY, BALLOU’S COMMUNITY,
Their history, their hopes, and why they failed;

THE FRENCH SCHOOL,
And the Enthusiasts of 1843. The Fourier Phalanxes, THE SYLVANIA, THE WISCONSIN, THE NORTH AMERICAN; How they gathered, grumbled, and dispersed;

BROOK FARM;
Its legends, literati, and the lesson of its life;

MODERN TIMES;
Its individual Sovereigns, and queer people;

THE BROCTONIAN RESPIRATIONISTS, And reminiscences of Mouutain Cove. The religious Communities and causes of their success; The Rappite six hundred; the Zoarites; the Shakers; the Oneida Community, its peculiarities, religious and social, etc., etc.

This book is the first attempt to apply the principles of Socialism. It is an octavo of 678 pages, heavy tinted paper, bound in cloth. Published by J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., Philadelphia. TRUBNER & CO., London. For sale by all booksellers. Price, $4. To Subscribers Of the CIRCULAR Who apply at this office, $3. Postage added, $3.50.

Traveling agents or other persons who are disposed to turn a penny by selling the book, will be supplied on liberal terms.
WHAT THE PAPERS SAY OF IT.

(From the New York Weekly Times.)
…Few books more interesting than this have been published in this country… Mr. Noyes’s history has the advantage of dealing in a vigorous and lucid style, with what is itself of intrinsic interest.

(From thee New York World.)

This history of American Socialisms really fills a gap which has not even been touched upon. … It is written with clearness and force. Its method is admirably lucid; and in all mechanical details, it is admirably got up.
(From the Independent.)

…A remarkable book, both in its subject-matter and in its treatment. It is the first and only attempt with which we are acquainted, to give a history of American Socialistic movements. … Students of Social Science will find in Mr. Noyes’s book altogether the best, if not the only, historical compend on the subject.

(From Hearth and Home.)

…A more interesting record can hardly be conceived. …it is a valuable contribution to the social and religious history of our country, and gives important information that may be looked for in vain elsewhere.

(From the Philadelphia North American Review.)

This volume is one of the most curious that has been written for years. …The fairness of the record and its unparalleled fullness must render it a text-book in discussions relating to Socialism and its efforts.
(From the Philadelphia Morning Post.)

…A work at once curious and interesting
. ..It presents facts clearly, briefly and well arranged
(From the Edinburgh Scotsman.)
…A curiously interesting volume. …Mr. Noyes seems to have given to the study of the history of the Communities a great amount of patient and careful thought.

(From the Cincinnati Chronicle.)
An original, faithful and elaborate work. …The author writes in a peculiarly transparent style is evidently a man of mark, and from the general tone of his work, would hardly be charged with eccentricity or lack of sound practical sense, unless in developing some of the peculiar tenets of the Oneida Communists. …A finer specimen of book-making, mechanically considered, we have rarely seen, then is this large octavo of 678 pages, wholly printed and executed by the Wallingford branch of the Oneida Community.

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